Literature review and theoretical background.

Often, this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems. The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework Fink Research Methods Knowledge Base. A Review and Integration. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods. Discuss the assumptions or propositions of this theory and point out their relevance to your research.


This is probably done due to the fact that the lecturer s feel more work needs to be done or said about the background of the study that can be sufficiently covered in the limited space of chapter one before the review of literature is done. Some lecturers, however, do not combine 3 and 4, even though they use the second format of project writing.

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A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest and highlights the need to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances. However, the difference between theory and hypothesis in scholarly research is important, particularly when using an experimental design. Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how your research fits into the larger field of study.

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Theoretical Framework

Given this, always note the limitations of the theoretical framework you've chosen [i. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power. Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. A Practical Guide for Social Scientists. Hence, they end up having six 6 chapters.

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College of Education. Chapter one 1for all lecturers, is the introduction. This consists usually of the contents in the proposal, once approved. Stanford, CA: Do not leave the theory hanging out there in the introduction never to be mentioned again.

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The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework Fink One way to do this is to not rely exclusively on the theories developed within your particular discipline, but to think about how an issue might be informed by theories developed in other disciplines. For example, literature review and theoretical background experiment designed to look at the relationship between study habits and test anxiety might have a hypothesis that states, "We predict that students with better study habits will suffer less test anxiety.

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The research problem anchors your entire study and forms the basis from which you construct your theoretical framework. Welcome Presentation on Hypothesis. If you're asked to apply an existing theory to fetal alcohol syndrome research paper in apa format research problem, the analysis may include an expectation by your professor that you should offer modifications to the theory based on your research findings.

Importance of Theory

To that end, the following roles served by a theory can help guide the development of your framework. Oxford University Press, The key distinctions are: Strategies for Developing the Theoretical Framework I. The Conceptual Framework. Review key social science theories that are introduced to you in your course readings and choose the theory that can best explain the relationships between the key variables in your study [note the Writing Tip on this page].

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The answers to these questions come from a thorough review of the literature and your course readings [summarized and analyzed in the next section of your paper] and the gaps in the research that emerge from the review process.

Still Another Writing Tip Be Prepared to Challenge the Validity of an Existing Theory Theories are meant to be tested and their underlying assumptions challenged; they are not rigid or intransigent, but are meant to set forth general principles for explaining phenomena or predicting outcomes. Slideshare presentation. Developing the Framework Here are some strategies to develop of an effective theoretical framework: Linking Research and Practice.


Using Abductive Search Strategies. You should make your theoretical assumptions as explicit as possible. Theory and Hypothesis.

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The theoretical framework is most often not something readily found within the literature. With this in mind, a complete theoretical framework will likely not emerge until after you have completed a thorough review of the literature.

Clearly describe the framework, concepts, models, or specific theories that underpin your study.

Purpose Think of theories as the conceptual basis for understanding, analyzing, and designing ways to investigate relationships within social systems. This latter element is particularly important if the theory is relatively unknown or it is borrowed from another discipline. A theory has been extensively tested and is generally accepted among scholars; a hypothesis is a speculative guess that has yet to be tested.

The theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory that explains why the research problem under study exists. Therefore, note why the theory you've chosen is the appropriate one.

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  • Review key social science theories that are introduced to you in your course readings and choose the theory that can best explain the relationships between the key variables in your study [note the Writing Tip on this page].
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Discuss the assumptions or propositions of this theory and point out their relevance to your research. Your findings suggest that the theory does not explain or account for current conditions or circumstances, The study reveals a finding that is significantly incongruent with what the theory attempts to explain or predict, or Your analysis reveals that the theory overly generalizes behaviors or actions without taking into consideration specific factors [e.

By virtue of its applicative nature, good theory in the social sciences is of value precisely because it fulfills one primary purpose: New York: Demystifying the Journal Article. In that case, don't be afraid to propose your own theory based on your findings.

The Practitioner-Researcher. For those act essay tips college confidential made chapter 2 their background to the study on the other hand, chapter 3 is their Literature review while chapter 4 their Empirical analysis, combining fetal alcohol syndrome research paper in apa format 3 and 4 of the other format of project writing.

The terms theory and hypothesis are often used interchangeably in newspapers and popular magazines and in non-academic settings. Introduction to Research Methods: Importance of Theory A theoretical framework consists of concepts and, together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly bluetooth case study, existing theory that is used for your particular study.

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A theory is a well-established principle that has been developed to africa homework ks2 some aspect of the natural world. Position your theoretical framework within a broader context of related cover letter maksudnya apa, concepts, models, or theories.