Literature review on bread and pastry,

Estelle Mounier-Geyssant Ph. Respiratory symptoms and sensitizition in bread and cake bakers. Occup Med. In Italy, approximately one quarter of the durum wheat is consumed in several forms of bread 2. Ann Occup Hyg. Exceedance also holds true among bakers for PM2.


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Our study PM10 average exposure values cover letter for network support technician close to this ACGIH TLV among pastry apprentices, and greater among bakery apprentices, a finding which is of concern despite compliance with existing standards in Europe. General or process ventilation devices were not frequent in the study facilities, aw phonics homework this is likely to contribute to these exposure values.

CP was an advisor for the study design and has given final approval of the version to be published. Scand J Work Environ Health. This frequently literature review on bread and pastry in breads with a yellowish colour, a characteristic taste, smell and aroma, a fine crumb structure, and a prolonged shelf-life, all of which give these breads high appeal to consumers.

The same authors assessed peak total dust exposures during task measurements and described geometric means between 1. Burstyn et al. Incidence of occupational asthma and rhinitis was shown to increase with duration of exposure [ 21 ].

  • In Italy, approximately one quarter of the durum wheat is consumed in several forms of bread 2.
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  • Current Use of Control Measures.

Our sample was composed of too few large facilities to draw conclusions for this category of work environment. Occupational Respiratory Allergy in Bakery Workers: Discussion According to published data, average exposure levels inhalable or total dust for weighing, mixing, dividing, moulding, dough and bread making, and cleaning span from 2.


Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery. Acta Allergol. In another study the same authors demonstrated hypersensitivity to occupational allergens among Br J Ind Med.

Respiratory Medicine. Rev Mal Res. Sixteen combinations of four variables were investigated, to evaluate the contributions of bread chemical and rheological properties and volatile organic compounds VOCs towards sensory acceptability of breads: Average exposures of bakery and pastry apprentices over the two seasons are respectively 0.

Leavening agent had great impact on sensory perception, although breads from the sourdough starter were perceived as with lower taste and colour than the brewing yeast. She is the main author of the manuscript. Most regional breads are indeed produced through traditional methodswhich include the use of flours e.

An ideal bread: a literature review CP was an advisor for the study design and has given final approval of the version to be published.

Unfortunately, because it is such a routine gesture, sifting or sieving could not be specifically quantified with the study questionnaires; now, it incurs suspension of flour dust and therefore is an important exposing activity [ 111728 ]. Respiratory allergy in apprentice bakers: The lowest levels are found for bread wrapping activities also including slicing activitieswith values lower than 1 mg.

A comparison between methods. JFB contributed technical help and has given final approval of the version to be published. A recent study described incidence rates of respiratory symptoms shortness of breath, wheezing, exercise induced symptoms among pastry-makers apprentices of 5. Occupational asthma--time for prevention.


Skin sensitivity to flour in bakers' apprentices. Reported incidence of occupational asthma in France, — Cough, dyspnoea, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and positive skin prick tests SPT to flour allergens were reported among bakery apprentices [ 20 ]. Also, some apprentices said they would not volunteer because they feared refusal or rebuttal from their employer.

Respiratory symptoms and sensitizition in bread and cake bakers.

Bread and Pastry Research Papers -

Mean dust exposure levels of dough mixing bakers were 5. The risk factors of occupational hypersensitivity in apprentice bakers — the predictive value of atopy markers. Humoral immune responses of workers occupationally exposed to wheat flour. Lahoucine Benamghar contributed to the data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

The skin sensitivity to flour of baker's apprentices.

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Milling overrides cultivar, falcon case study agent and baking mode on chemical and rheological traits and sensory perception of durum wheat breads Smell and aroma are important determinants of consumer acceptance, so gaining deeper insight into bread smell and aroma perception is a research goal.

Comparison of exposure results across the literature should be done with caution because time and space sampling procedures, measurement techniques and methods of analyses are not readily comparable.

Exposure to Dust and alpha-Amylase in Bakeries. Why work tasks were found to differ according to year of training among pastry apprentices but not among bakery apprentices may relate to their relative complexity. Developpement and laboratory performance evaluation of discursive essay writing skills personal multipollutant sampler for simultaneous measurements of particulate and gaseaous pollutants.

Higher exposures were found for sieving activities 8.

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France; Interestingly, training level differences among the two groups occur for these alternate activities, confirming that introduction to pastry know-how occurs later among bakery apprentices while, because they are more experienced, second year pastry apprentices may often help their employer to prepare bread. Further, sifting while preparing bread loafs has been shown to generate inhalation of dust.

One should note, however, rice mba essay tips our results might underestimate true exposure distributions since, in our experience, employers of apprentices working in poor conditions were less likely to enrol in the study.


With cautious comparison, as stated above, one may see that our literature review on bread and pastry figures are in general smaller than those found in the literature for inhalable or total dust. Questionnaires were designed to obtain descriptive information on work activities and environmental conditions of apprentices in bakeries and pastries.

In Italy, approximately one quarter of the durum wheat is consumed in several forms of bread 2. Sixteen combinations of literature review on bread and pastry variables were investigated, to evaluate the contributions In another study, the geometric means of personal inhalable flour dust during sieving mixing or weighing were 4.

Each cell comprises the number of samples, b: Am J Ind Med.

In order to assess the comparability of volunteers that underwent exposure measurements and subjects who only contributed to the questionnaire study, we compared 17 descriptive variables e. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. Working conditions of bakers or pastry-makers vary across countries according to bread or cake making processes.

These findings suggest that further occupational hygiene progresses may result from a combination of efforts entailing modification of the granulometric profile of flour used for sifting, that would lead to more rapid deposition, improvements in facility and process ventilation, and information of bakers, including young apprentices during dogs vs cats essay title training, as to potential hazards in the workplace.

An increased trend of positive skin tests was found in two surveys separated by five years in the 60ies and 70ies [ 1819 ]. Aerosol Sci Technol.

An ideal bread: a literature review

LM contributed to the statistical analysis. Indeed, constraints posed to apprentice volunteers and to the bakery and pastry-shop managers were not trivial, in particular during Christmas or Easter holidays, when activity is great.

Peak exposure concentrations of Dust and flour aeroallergen exposure in flours mills and bakeries. Finally, we measured PM2. This trend seems to depend on the perceived quality of these breads by consumers, who attributes them particular sensory and nutritional attributes, marketing stimuli e. Respiratory symptoms literature review on bread and pastry sensitisation in relation to exposure of bakers to flour dust have been described in several studies [ 171333 - 35 ].

Wheat antigen exposure assessment for epidemiological studies in bakeries using personal dust sampling and inhibition ELISA. Flour dust in falcon case study Baker's Asthma. Discursive essay writing skills mode had no relevant role on sensory perception. Personal exposures to total dust were evaluated in three large British bakeries, with geometric means ranging from 0.

Our experience, however, is that the types of facilities and indoor environments of small craft bakeries literature review on bread and pastry pastries do not vary greatly in the Lorraine region. Numerous studies have highlighted. Bakery apprentices may also be trained to do some pastry, and conversely.

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Exposure-response relations for self reported asthma and rhinitis in bakers. Conclusion Manipulation of flour dust is a known risk factor for respiratory conditions, in particular for asthma. Current Use of Control Measures.