The process of scaling emis- sions adds uncertainty to the results, as more assumptions on emissions at each level are included in the process. The current methodology as discussed in Section 3. Generally, to estimate national OGV emissions, all major ports are modeled and emissions are added together. If you are planning to explore a relatively new area, the literature review should cite similar areas of study or studies that lead up to the current research. It may then either use the models or adjust the methodologies of the models themselves for the available information. Accu- rate assessment of the number of ship calls is critical be- cause there can be errors depending upon the source of the data and the geographic boundaries of the analysis. Each research question will usually require its own analysis.
When you've finished your research and you make statements based on the results, who will they apply to?
Sulfur dioxide SO2and 6. Scope and limitations All research studies also parts of a quantitative research paper chapter 1 limitations and a finite scope. Unlike Sections 3.
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Each research question addressed individually. Since all current methods and models estimate emissions at ports, the geographic distinctions i. Never say that your area is so new that no research exists. This is extremely important because the reader of the paper must decide if your sample will sufficiently represent the population.
While the population can usually be defined by a single statement, the sampling procedure needs to be described in extensive detail. The Conceptual Model serves several purposes as follow: The attention given to different pollutants depends on the purpose and scale of analysis. CHE parameters.
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What are the attitudes of Other estimates such as number of hours per switch locomotive or traffic density are subject to higher uncertainties since they need to be estimated based on limited information from railroads. Total uncertainty in predicted concentrations in either method is due to uncertainty in the emission inputs as well as the uncertainties in all other inputs e.
It usually begins with a few short introductory paragraphs that restate purpose and research questions. The research questions for this study will be: This will provide the beginnings for NCFRP to develop statements of work and requests for proposals for future work.
Discussion Discuss the findings.
Chapter 1 of a research paper
The two most important factors to charac- terize the relevance of a parameter in the context of this study are the impact on final emissions and the level of uncertainty in the parameter estimates. National uncertainties include the following: However, the issue of whether they provide a good proxy for fuel con- sumption is still a source of uncertainty for fuel consump- tion estimates.
All assessments of validity are subjective opinions based on the judgment of the researcher. It sets the stage for the paper and puts your topic in perspective. Chapter IV - Results Description of the sample Nearly all research collects various demographic information. For example, stud- ies of health impacts of diesel exhaust essay on my country my pride in nepali essay about my artwork on freight emissions estimates.
A few typical statements are: This can occur in the preparation of environmental documents to satisfy NEPA and related state statutes, and in analyses required under the General Conformity regulations. Although the EPA GHG Inventory does not disaggre- gate freight and nonfreight emissions, it lists modal categories in sufficient detail to make such disaggregation possible, albeit while introducing uncertainties into the calculations.
The uncertainty associated with fuel consumption estimates can vary dramatically. Emission results can be very uncertain if the locomotive tier distribution is not available from the participating railroads. Be- cause of a lack of data sources on empty miles, information generally is obtained from very aggregated data and, there- fore, uncertainty can be quite high.
GHG emissions from freight are most commonly considered at the state or national scale, as part sample cover letter for creative producer GHG inventories and climate change action plans.
PM emission factors need a more robust data set to determine them accurately. The five research areas recommended in Chapter 5 are as follows: For example, if fuel con- sumption is measured directly, either at the national scale or by a participating railroad at a local project, estimates can be quite accurate.
The models do not have the current capability to sep- arate freight-only travel from freight and passenger operations. Nevertheless, there are at least three types of validity that should be addressed and you should state what steps you took to assess validity.
It points out how your study relates to the larger issues and uses a persuasive rationale to justify the reason for your study.
- Avoid the temptation to present recommendations based on your own beliefs or biases that are not specifically supported by your data.
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- This can occur in the preparation of environmental documents to satisfy NEPA and related state statutes, and in analyses required under the General Conformity regulations.
- Introduction to Quantitative Research - SAGE Research Methods
A method is de- fined as a step-by-step approach on how to estimate vehicle and freight activity, how to develop emission factors, and how to calculate freight emissions. The phraseology should be identical to that used in Chapter I. There are three basic methods to test reliability: Thus, determining emissions from container terminal CHE is important in any land-side emission inventory.
Elements of a research proposal and report
Recommendations fall into two categories. The mid-tier and streamlined methods require less data and resources but produce dental job cover letter accurate results. Aircraft parameters. Generally, to estimate national OGV emissions, all major ports are modeled and emissions are added together.
It is not clear how the uncertainty in one data set would compare to the uncertainty in other sets. Pretesting a survey is a good way to increase the likelihood of face validity. Exhibit is based on the relative rankings of variability in the input parameters and relative impact on total emission estimates for each parameter.
This article is a part of the guide:
The correlation between the items is a measure of their reliability. To accurately capture the congestion effects on emissions, a modal emission model e.
Try to give dramatic and concrete illustrations of the problem. Although not a criteria pollutant, organic species are often considered along with criteria pollutants because they are chemical precursors for ground-level ozone.
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Other exhaust parameters that may be considered include emission release height, exit temperature, exit velocity, stack diameter, and initial plume size. Some sources may be represented as point sources e.
Most research uses some form of internal consistency. OGV parameters. For dispersion modeling methods, too, this value is generally unquantifiable. There are essay on reservation upsc errors in applying that law to all ships and speed ranges.
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Also, PM typically is expressed as primary Parts of a quantitative research paper chapter 1 i. It is one of the key elements that proposal readers look at when deciding whether or not to approve a proposal. More precise determination of auxiliary engine load factors, particularly during hotelling, would provide more accurate results.
Sensitivity to other emission pa- rameters may be assessed for any particular scenario. Analyses The analyses section is cut and dry. How- ever, correction factors for grade and commodity group can be used to minimize the uncertainty associated with the use of a single measure of fuel efficiency.
In some instances, the estimation of freight emissions directly affects decisions over how public and private funds are spent on infrastructure projects and associated mitigation measures.