Qualitative Research Part II: Participants, Analysis, and Quality Assurance

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Strategies for overcoming missing data on just one or two items will be described when discussing data analysis in Coding Data from the Instrument. Interpretive analysis is generally seen as being conducted in 3 stages: This allows the researcher to document the emergence of new themes and also to identify perspectives that may otherwise be overlooked.


  1. Generalization means whether the results of the study generalize, or apply, to a group different than those individuals who participated in the study.

For example, if the researcher will compare nursery children to primary children on their motivation, then those two groups must be explained separately. All research studies must include the previous demographic information.

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The names of all of the government schools were put into a hat and five schools were drawn. All participants selected for this study resided in the middle-belt of Nigeria.

Data Analysis

In the final stage, the list of students in JS2 was obtained in those five schools. In the third stage, the list of all government schools in the LGA was obtained. The second sample consisted of pre-service teachers who were starting a coffee shop business plan ppt their application letter for fresh college graduate year of teacher training at the university.

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No participants were excluded for any reason. Other characteristics such as national origin, level of education, health status, and language preference can help give readers a better understanding of the sample. Based on the details regarding the population, sample, and sampling technique, the reader can evaluate whether the results of the study may generalize to a different sample that they are interested in.

Qualitative Research Part II: Participants, Analysis, and Quality Assurance

To summarize, the Sample section should include: These teachers attended a four-week in-service training workshop on general teaching skills that culminated in earning a certificate from a university.

Does the process reflect best practices, eg, comparison of findings within and among transcripts, and use of memos to record decision points? In the participants section, briefly identify the target population, then thoroughly describe the sample and how the sample was chosen, using the same guidelines presented above.


  • Decisions regarding selection are based on the research questions, theoretical perspectives, and evidence informing the study.
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See table 2 for the key elements for each of these topics. First, a participant might have just skipped one item on a questionnaire.

  • An example Sampling Technique section is written below.
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  • First, the students were clustered into states.
  • Number of participants broken down by major demographic characteristics e.

Techniques for interpreting data and findings include discussion and comparison of codes among research team members while purposefully looking for similarities and differences among themes, comparing findings with those of other studies, exploring theories which might explain relationships among themes, and exploring negative results those that do not confirm the dominant themes in more detail.

Finally, reporting empirical research in a journal article, technical report, or book chapter is different than writing a thesis.

Selecting Participants

If you are not writing a thesis, then the population, sample, and sampling technique sections are typically combined into one Participants section. In the professionalism intervention example, as data are analyzed, the researchers may note that only positive experiences difference entre business plan et business modele views are being reported.

In this case, the researcher can use that student's English and Math scores, but they will be considered missing in Science. Interpretation follows deconstruction and refers to making sense of and understanding the coded data.

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It is similar to content analysis mentioned above. In the second stage, an LGA within each state was randomly selected, also using the hat and draw method.

There are two types of missing data. Furthermore, different demographic characteristics must be explained when those variables are experimental variables or important for the interpretation of the results.

Is it clear how the data codes or categories were developed?

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First, the sampling technique should be explained. It is best to report this type of missing cover letter for target store in the results section.

How many were in primary school? Step 7: Elements to consider when assessing the quality of analysis include: For example, if a researcher is comparing boys' and girls' achievement in English, Maths, and Science, a student may have a score in English and Maths sample essay in japanese language not Science.

Generalization to other Groups. Once the sampling technique has been theoretically explained, then explain how the sampling technique was practically applied to the particular study: The number of participants depends upon the number required to inform fully all important elements of the phenomenon being studied.

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An example Sampling Technique section is written below. While researchers should work hard to get as many questionnaires returned as possible, it is practically impossible that all questionnaires will be returned. All JS2 students in the five selected schools were purposively chosen to participate in the study.

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The following sections address these approaches. The researcher should work with their supervisor to determine how much information needs to be included in the sample section before the study has been completed.

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