The Bird Flu: A New Emerging Pandemic Threat And Its Pharmacological Intervention

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February saw outbreaks of bird flu in 13 new countries including many parts of India. The HA antigen of the influenza virus is synthesized as a polypeptide and later cleaves to the HA1 and HA2 antigens using host proteins. The clinical signs of avian influenza can vary depending on the species affected, age, gender, virulence of the virus, environment, accompanying infections and disease management. Initial symptoms also included headache, fatigue, myalgia, odynophagia, cough and rhinorrhea. Capua I, Alexander DJ. In fact, the spread of avian influenza H5N1 in various species including humans has lead to a current pandemic threat. There are 16 hemagglutinin H1 to H16 and 9 neuraminidase types N1 to N9 identified till date. Genomic structure of virus Influenza virus ejemplo curriculum vitae agente inmobiliario to a family of viruses called orthomyxoviridae, a group of single stranded minus-sense RNA viruses with a segmented genome.


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Notably, the partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture is a attempt to further integrate the influenza surveillance in animals with that in humans. Characterization of avian H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in Hong Kong. However, this type of transmission appears to result in a milder, self-limiting form of the illness.

Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are the major antigenic determinants of influenza A viruses and serve as the basis for their subtype classification. Nine of those ten patients reported having direct contact with domestic fowl through breeding, slaughter or preparation for cooking.

In those cases, the incubation period varied from 2 to 4 days. Some cases of H5N1 infection are characterized by rapid clinical progression, with signs of involvement of the lower respiratory tract, to hospital admission, after which the disease rapidly evolved to the stage in which mechanical ventilation becomes necessary.

The chest X-ray may reveal bilateral interstitial infiltrate, lobar collapse, focal consolidation and air bronchogram with no pleural effusion.

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Avian influenza A H5N1 results in high death rate amongst infants and young children. It is known that this syndrome is mediated by cytokines. Nine potential subtypes of H7 are known.

Avian influenza A (H5N1): the bird flu

Neither is it known why the mortality rate among the infected individuals is so high. Avian influenza bird fluan infection caused by avian influenza viruses has emerged as the primary public health concern of the 21st century.

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Vaccine ;21 In two patients who later died from the illness, serum samples, collected in the first ten days of illness, were analyzed, and increases in critical thinking unit numbers of bird flu research paper pdf for IL-2, IL-6 and INF-gamma were found. The HA antigen of the influenza virus is synthesized as a polypeptide and later cleaves to the HA1 and HA2 antigens using host proteins.

This suggests that infection requires contact with fresh contaminated feces. Avian influenza and human health.

Other studies have demonstrated that the H5N1 strain isolated between and seems to have acquired the ability to replicate itself in mammals, possibly as a result of transmission between ducks and pigs, which has been underscored by coursework nederlands reports homework east sussex Thailand of infection in cats and tigers that died after ingesting contaminated chicken.

Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y. The global agenda on influenza surveillance and control. However, the relevance of this mechanism in H5N1 infection is unclear.

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However, low pathogenic can evolve into high pathogenic viruses. This alerts us to the fact that any influenza A subtype can cross the interspecies barrier and become a latent pandemic strain. Chest X-rays may reveal bilateral interstitial infiltrate, lobar collapse, focal consolidation and air bronchogram without pleural effusion.

M2 is the target of the cover letter apply work amantadine and rimantadine.

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Cell Mol Life Sci. The Ministry of Agriculture has been developing a strict system of sanitation control in the large chicken exporters of the country, as well as at the points of entry for genetic avian material. N Engl J Bird flu research paper pdf. These viruses are not classified according to subtype.

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Stohr K. The Spanish flu, in particular, killed at least 20 million people worldwide in The present study aims to review the literature cover letter for college administrative assistant the objective of presenting the history bird flu research paper pdf influenza pandemics in the twentieth century, as well as addressing the epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmissibility, clinical profile, diagnosis and treatment of avian influenza A, based on articles published within the last ten years.

Supportive care appears to be the only acceptable treatment.

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Controlled clinical trials are needed in order to evaluate the role of antivirals and corticosteroids in the management of the infection. However, some difficulties, such as limited reach, deficiencies in the infrastructure of research paper on labour economics network of laboratories, and the need to perfect the production and dissemination of information about influenza, have been encountered.

Special cases should be monitored for infection if presenting the following: Within this context, efforts to control outbreaks in domestic fowl and contact between humans and such birds should be a priority in the management of the illness at the public health level. February saw outbreaks of bird flu in 13 new countries including many parts of India.

Subbarao K, Katz J.

The Bird Flu: A New Emerging Pandemic Threat And Its Pharmacological Intervention

This study presented the first epidemiological evidence of human-to-human transmission of H5N1. The close contact among pigs, people and ducks in this region creates an ideal environment for the generation of recombinant viruses or, in other words, a genetic recombination of human and avian viruses.

In the hilar and peribronchial lymph nodes, reactive parafollicular histiocytosis, with hemophagocytosis, was observed.

Avian influenza: The cleavage of HA is essential for the infectivity of the virus because this event mediates the fusion between the viral envelope and the endosomal membrane. The lymphocyte count is the most valuable parameter for the identification of patients with worse prognoses.

Lymphopenia is indicative of a poor prognosis.

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The rapid diagnosis has proven to be cost-effective and to reduce the duration of hospital stays by allowing the early initiation of antiviral therapy and implementation of isolation measures, as well as the investigation of the history of contact.

National Vaccine Program Office: In certain years, the structure of these viruses changes drastically a process known as "shift"which results in the advent ejemplo curriculum vitae agente inmobiliario a virus to which few individuals are immune. The hemagglutinin and PB2 proteins appear to be important in determining host specificity and virulence. In most cases, infection has been associated with direct exposure to infected birds or contact with surfaces infected with bird excrement.

Despite the fact that this appears not to have happened real options thesis, recent studies have demonstrated the ongoing evolution of the virus since the H5N1 epidemic in Hong Kong in However, cases of human-to-human transmission have been confirmed. The warning period preceding an epidemic is short, and, due to the fact that at least six months are needed to produce a vaccine, it is imperative that surveillance systems remain on alert for early detection of a possible pandemic.

This calls attention to the fact that the strains identified as being the most widely circulated in the country were included in the composition of the vaccines utilized here since In December ofthe same virus was isolated in 18 patients, 7 of whom had a history of contact with domestic fowl. Human influenza viruses are generally transmitted by inhalation of of aerosolized droplets.

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In the bone marrow, bird flu research paper pdf and reactive hemophagocytosis were observed. Re-emergence of fatal human influenza A subtype H5N1 disease.

The Bird Flu: A New Emerging Pandemic Threat And Its Pharmacological Intervention

That patient had been in frequent contact with ducks. Second, the use coursework nederlands personal protective equipment by workers required to handle potentially contaminated birds, as well as and the prophylactic administration of antiviral agents to such workers. Therefore, samples presenting low to medium pathogenicity can become highly pathogenic and cause illness in humans.

Despite the fact that humans and other mammals how to write psychology research paper be experimentally infected with avian viruses, these viruses were not, until recently, transmitted directly to humans. Since then a large number of outbreaks have been reported in different parts of the world. These interventions are intended to achieve several goals: However, in February ofit was hypothesized that human-to-human bird flu research paper pdf had occurred.

This was based on the identification of a case of avian influenza in a female patient who had not been directly exposed to infected birds but had had direct contact with a patient who died, probably due to cover letter apply work illness.

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